Senin, 28 Mei 2012


 1.            Period or Full Stop. We use a period or  full stop at the end of the all sentences except questions and exclamations.
The price of gold is currently very high.
There are several Middle Eastern restaurants near the campus.

We also use a period with most abbreviations. Your teacher will explain to you the abbreviated forms in the following sentences.
I plan to visit some art galleries when I go to Washington, D.C. next week.
Yoko wants to travel across the U.S. next summer.
He got a B.A. degree from the University of Michigan last year.
Dr. Swisher is a professor in the school of Education.

2.            Question Mark. We use a question mark at the end of a question.
Did you see the movie at the Strand Theater last week?
Have you ever been to Buenos Aires?

3.            Exclamation Mark. We use an exclamation mark to express strong feeling.
I don’t believe you!
What a beautiful day!

Note: Exclamation marks are not used frequently in academic writing.


There are two kinds of letters in the English alphabet. Capital letters are usually larger and sometimes have a different shape than small letters.
There are several important rules for using capital letters. You must capitalize:

1.            The first word of a sentence
The people had to wit hours for the concert to begin.
A good diet is important for good health.

2.            The pronoun I
I am always tired when I get home from classes.

3.            Names of people
Jack Scott
Susan Martin
Carlos Perez
Mohammed Al-Shehri

4.            Titles that appear with names
Title                                  Abbreviation
Doctor                               Dr.
Professor                           Prof.
Mister                                Mr.
                                          Mrs.     (married woman)
Miss                                              (unmarried woman)
                                          Ms.      (woman)

(Your teacher will explain these titles and give some examples of their use).

5.            Names of cities
New York

6.            Names of states and countries
New Jersey

7.            Names of continents, oceans, lakes, rivers, deserts, mountains, and important geographic divisions.
the Pacific Ocean
Lake Luzerne
the Sahara Desert
the Andes Mountains
the Far East
the Middle West

8.            Names of institutions and organizations.
the United Nations
American Telephone and Telegraph
the English Language Institute
the University of Maine 

9.            Names of specific buildings
the White House
the Burke Building
Baxter Library

Note: in 7, 8, and 9 above we do not capitalize the, or words such as of or and.

10.        Names of streets
Forbes Avenue
Sixth Street

11.        Brand name
Standard Oil

12.        Names of languages and nationalities

13.        Days of the week and their abbreviations
Day                                   Abbreviation
Monday                            Mon.
Tuesday                            Tues.
Wednesday                       Wed.
Thursday                           Thurs.
Friday                               Fri.
Saturday                            Sat.
Sunday                              Sun.

14.        Months of the year and their abbreviations
Month                               Abbreviation
January                             Jan.
February                            Feb.
March                                Mar.
April                                  Apr.
August                              Aug.
September                         Sept.
October                             Oct.
November                         Nov.
December                          Dec.

15.        Holidays
Labor Day


Exercise 1. Rewrite the following sentences adding the proper end punctuation and capital letters. Also, put a period where necessary after an abbreviation.

Example      :     my birthday is in september
My birthday is in September.

1.            smith hall is the main administration building at eastern university
2.            classes of the English language institute meet on monday, tuesday, thursday, and friday
3.            dr whitney told jorge, the student from peru, that he must have an operation next week
4.            is Manchester or concord the capital of new hampshire
5.            i know that mohammed plans to begin his academic work at princeton university in new jersey next january
6.            ford and general motors are both companies that are located in michigan
7.            jordan, egypt, and syria are countries of the middle east
8.            professor carmen teachers spanish, french, and italian at american university in washington, d.c
9.            the mississippi river and the colorado river are two of the longest rivers in the united states
10.        when you go to new york, try to visit the united nations
11.        the foreign students office in barker hall provides many valuable service for foreign students at newport collage
12.        during ramadan, an important holiday in the moslem religion, people must fast
13.        where are you from

Exercise 2.

1.            Write your present address. Remember to capitalize all of the necessary words.
2.            Write the address of your school.

The Comma

Use commas in the following cases:

1.            To separate the parts of an address (street, apartment number, city, and state)
He lives at 101 Kendall Avenue, Apartment 3, Chicago, Illinois.
My address is 514 Fairmount Street, Los Angeles, California.
He lives on Fifth Avenue in Pittsburg.

2.            To separate the date and the year
I was born on December 18, 1947.

3.            To separate items in a series
We had chicken, rice, and beans for dinner.
He’s taking courses in physics, sociology, anthropology, and mathematics.
He walked to the store, bought some groceries, and then went to the Laundromat.
It was a long, expensive, boring trip.

Use a comma after each item in a series including the item before the word and. However, when there are only two items joined by and, do not use a comma.
We had chicken and rice for dinner.
He’s taking courses in physics and mathematics.
We walked to the store and then went to the Laundromat.
It was a long and boring trip.

Exercise. Rewrite each of the following sentences putting a comma where necessary. In some sentences, no comma is necessary.
Example 1      :     You can buy cigarettes shaving cream cosmetics and aspirin at the drugstore on the corner.
                        You can buy cigarettes, shaving cream, cosmetics, and aspirin at the drugstore on the corner.

Example 2      :     I forgot to bring my grammar book and my homework assignment to class today.
                        I forgot to bring my grammar book and my homework assignment to class today.

1.            That house on Aiken Street has a living room dining room kitchen three bedrooms and a bathroom.
2.            A typewriter an adding machine and two chairs were stolen from the office last night.
3.            Pronunciation grammar reading and writing are taught in beginning and intermediated levels.
4.            My address is 4510 North Ivy Street Apt. 310 Detroit Michigan.
5.            They will leave for Colombia on January 5 1978.
6.            Air pollution crime in the streets and lack of housing are problems in many large cities today.
7.            I must speak to my advisor register for classes and buy my books before June 15th.
8.            Maria is an intelligent attractive kind person.
9.            We had steak salad potatoes and ice cream for dinner last night.
10.        We moved the Denver on March 14 1985.
11.        The president traveled to Brazil and Venezuela on his most recent trip.
12.        On Saturday we usually clean the house do the laundry and buy groceries.
13.        I have to buy some soap and shampoo at the campus store.
14.        Earlier today I went to the bookstore and bought some books paper pens and a record.
15.        Every country need money to educate its children build houses and roads and pay the government employees.

The Apostrophe


An apostrophe is used to indicated possession or belonging.

The teacher’s announcement surprised us.
Bob’s wallet was stolen sometime last night.
We are certain that the president’s new economic plan will fail.

Singular Nouns

1.            Add an apostrophe and an s to singular nouns which do not end in s.
Linda’s house went on sale last week.
The dog’s barking kept us awake all night.
The director’s duties were increased after her assistant’s job was eliminated.
You should also add an apostrophe and an s to indefinite pronouns.
I don’t know anyone’s name.
What is everyone’s favorite flavor?

2.            Add an apostrophe and an s to singular nouns which end is s.
The actress’s father is in the audience tonight.
James’s ideas are often strange, but always interesting.

Sometimes you will see only an apostrophe added to singular nouns ending in s.
the actress’ father
James’ idea

Plural Nouns

3.            Add an apostrophe to plural nouns which end in s.
The boys’ parents were upset by their behavior.
My employer owes me three weeks’ pay.
The teacher got tired of hearing the students’ complaints.

4.            Add an apostrophe and an s to irregular plurals.
Children’s toys have become quite expensive.
The thief ran away and disappeared into the men’s room.

Compounds and Word Groups

5.            Add an apostrophe and an s to the last word of a compound word or group of words.
Everyone in the family my sister-in-law’s cooking.
The secretary of agriculture’s policy was unpopular with the farmers.


Apostrophe   +    s       Apostrophe
singular nouns with             the man’s hat
no s ending

indenfinite pronouns           everyone’s choice

singular nouns ending         the actress’s role
in s

plural nouns ending                                                             the boy’s father
in s

iregular plural nouns           the men’s business



Exercise 1. Rewrite the sentences using apostrophes to show possession or belonging.

Example 1      :           John book is on the floor near the sofa.
                        John’s book is on the floor near the sofa.

Example 2      :           The girls dresses are both white.
                        The girls’ dresses are both white.

1.            The man car is a blue Volkswagen.
2.            The boys grades must improve if they want to go to engineering school.
3.            The women papers got wet in the rain.
4.            Is it true that the students books were stolen from the library?
5.            The University Drama Club us performing Shakespeare Macbeth next month.
6.            How long has your cousin daughter been living with you?
7.            Are vegetables anyone favorite food?
8.            What were the secretary of state opinions on this matter?
9.            Many teenagers disagree with their parent views.
10.        I hope that cleaning up is someone else responsibility.

Exercise 2. Rewrite each of the following items using a construction with an apostrophe.

Example 1      :           The house that my neighbor bought  
                        my neighbor’s house

Example 2      :           the toys that belong to the children   
                        The children’s toys

1.            the soccer team at the university
2.            the paper that Bill wrote
3.            the job of the editor-in-chief
4.            the bedroom that the boys sleep in
5.            the choice of everyone
6.            the office of the women
7.            the personal computer that Charles bought
8.            the car belongs to the priest

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