Jumat, 25 Mei 2012

Modul Bahasa Inggris Kelas X


Modul Kelas X


. Procedure
-          Tujuan Komunikatif Teks
Memberi petunjuk cara melakukan sesuatu melalui serangkaian atau langkah

-          Struktur Teks
·         Tujuan kegiatan atau judul
·         Bahan-bahan
·         Langkah-langkah

-          Ciri Kebahasaan
·         Pola kalimat imperative, misalnya, cut, don’t mix, dsb.
·         Action verbs, misalnya turn, put, don’t, mix, dsb.
·         Connectives untuk mengurutkan kegiatan, misalnya then, while, dsb.
·         Adverbial untuk menyatakan rinc waktu, tempat, cara yang akurat, misalnya for five minutes, 2 sentimetres from the top, dsb.

Making a Cheese Omelette
           
            Ingredients :
            1 egg, 50g cheese, cup milk, cooking oil, salt and pepper
            Utensils :
            Frying pan, fork, spatula, cheese grater, bowl, plate
            Method :
1.      crack an egg into a bowl
2.      whisk the egg with a fork until it is smooth
3.      add milk and whisk well
4.      grate the cheese into the bowl and stir
5.      heat the oil in frying pan
6.      pour the mixture into the frying pan
7.      turn the omelet with a spatula when it browns
8.      cook both sides
9.      place on a plate ; season with salt and pepper
10.  eat while warm

Note :
Understanding Procedures
·         a Procedure is a place of writing which gives instructions how to do something
·         types of procedure text
-          recipe
-          instruction manuals
-          experiment report
-          spoken direction
·         Features of procedure text                                    Examples from the model text
-          Aim
The opening phrase states the
purpose of  the  procedure. It
usually  emphasizes  how   the                        How to make a cheese
procedure  is to be followed for                     omelet
the goal to be achieved success-
fully

-          Materials (ingredients and utensils)
This section list all the materials,                    1 egg, 50g cheese …. Frying
Including tools and other equipment,             pan, fork …
Needed fir the procedure to success-            
full or effective.

-          Method
The method is presented in a series of            1. crack an egg
Steps. In this recipe, the steps are in               2. whisk the egg
Chronological order.

-          Evaluation
Some procedures, such as experiment,
include comments that evaluate the
success of the procedures.

Exercise :
  1. Where would you see instructions like these ?
  2. How is this piece of writing set out differently from a story ?
  3. a. What are the subheadings ?
b. Why are they useful ?
  1. You use the imperative mood in recipe. Now write down all the verbs in this way in the recipe above
  2. What would happen if the verbs were written in the past tense ?

-          Did you know ?
In writing a procedure or a set of instructions, you use the base from of verbs, e.g. crack, whisk. This use of the verb is know as the imperative mood.
Often, the reader is referred to directly, e.g. eat while warm.

Exercise :
Imagine you have made a delicious or weird snack or drink, and a friend wants you to write out the instructions, so he or she can make it too. Use the heading below to make notes for your recipe.

Title of recipe        :
Ingredients                        :
 
 


Utensil                   :
 
Method                 :
 
 



Exercise :
Now write down the recipe in full. Give an interesting title to your recipe!

Checklist for your recipe                                                               Ö
1.      List all the ingredients and equipment                                   

2.      Use the imperative mood for the instruct-
tions, e.g. crack an egg, add milk.

3.      Use abbreviated sentences where possible,
without reducing the details needed. For
example, cook both sides … rather than
cook the omelet on both sides.

4.      Check the spelling and punctuation marks.
Used in the recipe.




Simple Present

FORM

[VERB] + s/es in third person
Examples:
·       You speak English.
·       Do you speak English?
·       You do not speak English.
Complete List of Simple Present Forms

USE 1 Repeated Actions


Use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is repeated or usual. The action can be a habit, a hobby, a daily event, a scheduled event or something that often happens. It can also be something a person often forgets or usually does not do.
Examples:
·       I play tennis.
·       She does not play tennis.
·       Does he play tennis?
·       The train leaves every morning at 8 AM.
·       The train does not leave at 9 AM.
·       When does the train usually leave?
·       She always forgets her purse.
·       He never forgets his wallet.
·       Every twelve months, the Earth circles the Sun.
·       Does the Sun circle the Earth?




USE 2 Facts or Generalizations


The Simple Present can also indicate the speaker believes that a fact was true before, is true now, and will be true in the future. It is not important if the speaker is correct about the fact. It is also used to make generalizations about people or things.
Examples:
·       Cats like milk.
·       Birds do not like milk.
·       Do pigs like milk?
·       California is in America.
·       California is not in the United Kingdom.
·       Windows are made of glass.
·       Windows are not made of wood.
·       New York is a small city. It is not important that this fact is untrue.

USE 3 Scheduled Events in the Near Future


Speakers occasionally use Simple Present to talk about scheduled events in the near future. This is most commonly done when talking about public transportation, but it can be used with other scheduled events as well.
Examples:
·       The train leaves tonight at 6 PM.
·       The bus does not arrive at 11 AM, it arrives at 11 PM.
·       When do we board the plane?
·       The party starts at 8 o'clock.
·       When does class begin tomorrow?

USE 4 Now (Non-Continuous Verbs)


Speakers sometimes use the Simple Present to express the idea that an action is happening or is not happening now. This can only be done with Non-Continuous Verbs and certain Mixed Verbs.
Examples:
·       I am here now.
·       She is not here now.
·       He needs help right now.
·       He does not need help now.
·       He has his passport in his hand.
·       Do you have your passport with you?

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
·       You only speak English.
·       Do you only speak English?

ACTIVE / PASSIVE

Examples:
·       Once a week, Tom cleans the car. Active
·       Once a week, the car is cleaned by Tom. Passive


Exercise



1. Every Monday, Sally (drive) ……….her kids to football practice.

2. Usually, I (work) …………as a secretary at ABT, but this summer I (study) …………French at a language school in Paris. That is why I am in Paris.

3. Shhhhh! Be quiet! John (sleep)……………...

4. Don't forget to take your umbrella. It (rain)……………..

5. I hate living in Seattle because it (rain, always)……………..

6. I'm sorry I can't hear what you (say) ………because everybody (talk) ……..so loudly.

7. Justin (write, currently) ………..a book about his adventures in Tibet. I hope he can find a good publisher when he is finished.

8. Jim: Do you want to come over for dinner tonight?
Denise: Oh, I'm sorry, I can't. I (go) ………..to a movie tonight with some friends.

9. The business cards (be, normally ) …………printed by a company in New York. Their prices (be) …………….inexpensive, yet the quality of their work is quite good.

10. This delicious chocolate (be) ………..made by a small chocolate in Zurich, Switzerland.




1.      Narrative :
-          Tujuan Komunikatif Teks
Menghibur pendengar atau pembaca dengan pengalaman nyata atau hayal. Ciri naratif adalah adanya unsur konflik (masalah) dan resolusi (penyelesaian masalah). Jumlah masalah atau penyelesaiannya mungkin hanya satu, mungkin juga lebih.
-          Struktur Teks
·         Pengenalan latar : tokoh, waktu dan tempat ;
·         Pengembangan konflik ;
·         Penyelesaian konflik ;
·         Koda : Perubahan yang terjadi pada tokoh atau pelajaran yang dapat dipetik dari cerita.
-          Ciri Kebahasaan
·         Nouns tertentu sebagai kata ganti orang, dalam cerita. Misalnya : Stepsisters, housework, dsb.
·         Adjective yang membentuk noun phrase. Misalnya : Long black two red apples, dsb.
·         Time connective dan conjunctions untuk mengurutkan kejadian. Misalnya : Then, before that, dsb.
·         Adverbs dan adverbial phrase untuk menunjukkan lokasi kejadian atau peristiwa. Misalnya : here, in the mountain, happily, ever after, dsb.
·         Action verbs dalam past tense.Misalnya : stayed, dsb.
·         Saying verbs yang menandai ucapan seperti told dan thinking verbs yang menandai pikiran, perasaan tokoh. Misalnya : thought, felt, dsb.

Teks Type Narrative
Tumble Wood
It was a cold winter’s night when I went to tumble wood. The full moon drifted in and out of the clouds, casting silvery light on the branches. My heart pounded like a drum and meekness shook like jelly, but I couldn’t turn back. I had to find the gold ring I lost in the picnic, the ring my grandma gave me before she died.

All round me the trees towered like giants. The branches waved in the wind like bony fingers. Snapping branches sounded like a thousand gunshots.

I run as fast as a cheetah until I came to the clearing. I got down on my hands and knees and began to search for the ring. Then the full moon disappeared behind the trees. The night was dark, as dark as the deepest well. I dug deeper into the frosty earth with my bare hands. Suddenly I felt something soft but cold. I shone my torch at the muddy earth. Then I screamed and jumped up, my face as white as a ghost. I looked down at the gruesome sight. It was a hand … a human hand.

-          Did You Know ?
The writer of ‘Tumble Wood’ creates an effect in the story by using adjectives and similes.
And adjectives is a word that describes a noun or pronoun, e.g. black jacket. A simile compare one thing to another using like or as …. as, e.g. he sings like a bird; I ran as fast as a cheetah.

-          Here are the notes the writer made before writing ‘Tumble Wood’. Study how the writer uses adjectives and similes in the story.
Adjectives or similes
When   ?          Winter’s night                         cold
Who    ?          Me                                           as fast as cheetah
Where  ?          Wood                                      trees like giants
                                                                        Branches like fingers
What   ?          Looking for lost ring               frostily, muddy                      

-          A writer may use the first person to tell the story, as in the narrative ‘Tumble Wood’. The purpose of narrative is to entertain the reader.

-          Types of  Narrative
·         Short story                       
·         Fables
·         Modern fantasy
·         Folk tales
·         Plays
·         Legends
·         Myths
·         Ballads

Features of Narrative
Examples from the model Text
·         Orientation
The opening of story sets the mood
by defining the setting, time, main                 It was a cold winter’s night ….
character/s and other information to
give the reader
·         Sequence of Events
The main body of the story outlines
an events a sequence of event’s that
leads the character/s into a compli –              
cation where the normal event’s are
upset by some form of conflict.                      I had to find the gold ring ….
More than one complication may be
created  to frustrated the character/s in
their attempts to achieve what they
wish, and to build tension and anti-
cipation in the reader.

·         Resolution
After  the  conflicts  are  resolved , 
everything ‘ends up happily ever after’
but not in all narratives. For example,             It was …. A human had!
in the scary story ‘Tumble Wood’ the
resolution is left for the reader to decide.

      Exercise One :
1.      Write three adjectives that are used in the story in the first column. Then name three things or people that you can use with these adjectives in the second column
 




2.      Write five similes that are used in the story
1. 
      2.
      3.
      4.
      5.

Note :
Checklist for your scary story                                                       Ö
1.      Define the setting, time, place and main                               
character/s clearly.

2.      Write in the past tense           


3.      Use descriptive language to draw a clear
picture in the reader’s mind. e.g. silvery
light, gruesome sight, on my hands and
knees.

4.      Use similes to create effect e.g. like a
thousand gunshots, like bony fingers, as
a ghost.

5.      Use action verbs and feeling verbs to pro-
vide suspense and emotion e.g. drifted in
and out, towered like giants, disappeared,
behind.

6.      Check the spelling and punctuation marks
Used in your story.

Exercise Two :
Make some notes for a scary story. Use suitable adjectives and similes to create the desire effect.

Orientation
Who          :
What         :
 

When         :
 

Where        :
 



Sequence of events / complications                                  Adjectives or similes
Event 1 :
 



Event 2 :
 





Resolution :
 



Exercise Tree :
Now write your own scary story. Remember to give your story a title.














Simple Past

FORM

[VERB+ed] or irregular verbs
Examples:
·       You called Debbie.
·       Did you call Debbie?
·       You did not call Debbie.

USE 1 Completed Action in the Past


Use the Simple Past to express the idea that an action started and finished at a specific time in the past. Sometimes, the speaker may not actually mention the specific time, but they do have one specific time in mind.
Examples:
·       I saw a movie yesterday.
·       I didn't see a play yesterday.
·       Last year, I traveled to Japan.
·       Last year, I didn't travel to Korea.
·       Did you have dinner last night?
·       She washed her car.
·       He didn't wash his car.

USE 2 A Series of Completed Actions


We use the Simple Past to list a series of completed actions in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.
Examples:
·       I finished work, walked to the beach, and found a nice place to swim.
·       He arrived from the airport at 8:00, checked into the hotel at 9:00, and met the others at 10:00.
·       Did you add flour, pour in the milk, and then add the eggs?

USE 3 Duration in Past


The Simple Past can be used with a duration which starts and stops in the past. A duration is a longer action often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.
Examples:
·       I lived in Brazil for two years.
·       Shauna studied Japanese for five years.
·       They sat at the beach all day.
·       They did not stay at the party the entire time.
·       We talked on the phone for thirty minutes.
·       A: How long did you wait for them?
B: We waited for one hour.

USE 4 Habits in the Past


The Simple Past can also be used to describe a habit which stopped in the past. It can have the same meaning as "used to." To make it clear that we are talking about a habit, we often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.
Examples:
·       I studied French when I was a child.
·       He played the violin.
·       He didn't play the piano.
·       Did you play a musical instrument when you were a kid?
·       She worked at the movie theater after school.
·       They never went to school, they always skipped class.

USE 5 Past Facts or Generalizations


The Simple Past can also be used to describe past facts or generalizations which are no longer true. As in USE 4 above, this use of the Simple Past is quite similar to the expression "used to."
Examples:
·       She was shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.
·       He didn't like tomatoes before.
·       Did you live in Texas when you were a kid?
·       People paid much more to make cell phone calls in the past.

IMPORTANT When-Clauses Happen First

Clauses are groups of words which have meaning but are often not complete sentences. Some clauses begin with the word "when" such as "when I dropped my pen..." or "when class began..." These clauses are called when-clauses, and they are very important. The examples below contain when-clauses.
Examples:
·       When I paid her one dollar, she answered my question.
·       She answered my question when I paid her one dollar.
When-clauses are important because they always happen first when both clauses are in the Simple Past. Both of the examples above mean the same thing: first, I paid her one dollar, and then, she answered my question. It is not important whether "when I paid her one dollar" is at the beginning of the sentence or at the end of the sentence. However, the example below has a different meaning. First, she answered my question, and then, I paid her one dollar.
Example:
·       I paid her one dollar when she answered my question.

ADVERB PLACEMENT

The examples below show the placement for grammar adverbs such as: always, only, never, ever, still, just, etc.
Examples:
·       You just called Debbie.
·       Did you just call Debbie?



Report

-          Tujuan Komunikatif :
Menyampaikan informasi tentang sesuatu apa adanya, sebagai hasil pengamatan sistematis atau analisis yang dideskripsikan dapat meliputi gejala alam, lingkungan, benda buatan manusia, atau gejala-gejala sosial. Deskripsi sebuah teks report dapat berupa simpulan umum misalnya tentag rumah sederhana dengan mendeskripsikan ciri-ciri subjet tersebut sehingga layak dikategorikan rumah sederhana, dsb.

-          Struktur Teks :
·         Pernyataan umum yang menerangkan subject laporan, keterangan, dan klasifikasinya
·         Deskripsi

-          Ciri Kebahasaan
·         General noun, seperti ‘Reptiles in Comodo Island
·         Relating verb untuk menjelaskan ciri, misalnya Reptiles are scaly animals (ciri ini berlaku untuk semua reptilian)
·         Action verbs dalam menjelaskan perilaku, misalnya lizards cannot fly
·         Present tense untuk menyatakan sesuatu yang umum, misalnya komodo dragons weight more than 160 kg
·         Istilah teknis, misalnya water contains oxygen and hydrogen
·         Paragraf dengan topik sentence untuk menyusun sejumlah informasi

Text type : Information Report
My Town
Sally decided to write a report on her hometown. She made these notes firs
Notes about my town
Name               : Black sands
Where              : River Black, highway, near harstone
Kind of town  : Seaside
Amenities        : Beaches, cinema, swimming pool, bowling alley, parks, playgroup,
     Fairground
            Buildings         : Hotel, shops, new housing estates
            Then she wrote this report :
My Town
Black sands is a large seaside town. Half of the town lines to the north of the River Black and the other half lies to the south it is only a few kilometers  to the nearest highway and just ten minutes drive from the city of Harstone.

Situated near the beach are lots of brightly painted hotel, some of them are very old. Many big name department stores, as well as smaller shop that sell souvenirs and gifts, are found on main street just outside the town centre. The heart of town is occupied by older houses and many historical buildings. In recent years, some new housing estates have been developed to the south of the town.

There are lots of things to do at Black sands. There is a harbor with boats for fishing and cruises. There are two beaches which are popular for various water events and whole year round swimming. A cinema, a swimming pool, a bowling alley as well as a fairground are located within the town. Two parks and several playgrounds are also easily accessible from the town centre and outlying housing estates.

-          Understanding Information Reports
An information report is a text type which presents information about a person, thing or place. In addition to written text, you may use tables, diagrams, photograph or pictures to present the information. In this unit ‘My Town’ is a report on a place called Black sands.

Although newspaper or eyewitness reports are often identified as information report, they are more accurately described as factual recounts as they describe incidents that have happened.

-          Type of Information Report
·         Reverence article
·         Textbooks
·         Lectures
·         Scientific articles

-          Features of procedure text                                          Examples from the model text
·         Classification
This is the opening statement which                     Black sands is a large seaside
Classifies the subject of the report                                    town ….
it can be a general reference to the
subject or a formal definition.

·         Description
This is the main body, describing the                   Half of the town lies north of ..
Various aspect of the topic covered                     ..lots of brightly painted hotels
In the report. The description is in                        …
Varying levels of detail.

·         Conclusion
A concluding comment completed
the report, but this may not always
be the case.

Exercise :
  1. Imagine that sally decides to add this information to her notes expand on the notes and add one paragraph at the end of her report
Best time to visit – June to August – fish festival, sailing competition, waterskiing
  1. Sally’s report is not chronological. This means the information does not have to be written in any order, with the exception of the first paragraph
    1. Check whether this is true. Swap the second paragraph with the third paragraph. Does it make any difference?
    2. Why do you think the first paragraph can’t be swapped with any other paragraph?

Exercise
Make some notes for a report about place where you live. Use these suggested heading to help you.
Name               :
Location          :
Kind of town  :
Buildings         :

 




Amenities        :
 
 




Concluding comment :
 
 






Checklist for your information report                                     Ö
1.      Use a formal style of writing avoiding
      Personal language                        

2.      Choose vocabulary related to the topic
E.g. amenities, recreation, housing
estate

3.      Use factual language rather than imaginative,
                  e.g. Black sands is a large seaside town …
rather than Black sands is a beautiful and
Peaceful seaside town

4.      Use the present tense to state facts or things 
                  That are always true, e.g. lies to the north,
                  Are very old.

5.      Check the spelling and punctuation marks.
                  Used in your report.

            Exercise :
            Now write your report in full
























Passive Voice

Active / Passive Verb Forms

Sentences can be active or passive. Therefore, tenses also have "active forms" and "passive forms." You must learn to recognize the difference to successfully speak English.

Active Form

In active sentences, the thing doing the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing receiving the action is the object. Most sentences are active.
[Thing doing action] + [verb] + [thing receiving action]
Examples:

Passive Form

In passive sentences, the thing receiving the action is the subject of the sentence and the thing doing the action is optionally included near the end of the sentence. You can use the passive form if you think that the thing receiving the action is more important or should be emphasized. You can also use the passive form if you do not know who is doing the action or if you do not want to mention who is doing the action.
[Thing receiving action] + [be] + [past participle of verb] + [by] + [thing doing action]
Examples:

Active / Passive Overview


Active
Passive
Simple Present
Once a week, Tom cleans the house.
Once a week, the house is cleaned by Tom.
Present Continuous
Right now, Sarah is writing the letter.
Right now, the letter is being written by Sarah.
Simple Past
Sam repaired the car.
The car was repaired by Sam.
Past Continuous
The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store.
The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store.
Present Perfect
Many tourists have visited that castle.
That castle has been visited by many tourists.
Present Perfect Continuous
Recently, John has been doing the work.
Recently, the work has been being done by John.
Past Perfect
George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic's license.
Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic's license.
Past Perfect Continuous
Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurant's fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris.
The restaurant's fantastic dinners had been being prepared by Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris.
Simple Future
will
Someone will finish the work by 5:00 PM.
The work will be finished by 5:00 PM.
Simple Future
be going to
Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight.
Future Continuous
will
At 8:00 PM tonight, John will be washing the dishes.
At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washed by John.
Future Continuous
be going to
At 8:00 PM tonight, John is going to be washing the dishes.
At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washed by John.
Future Perfect
will
They will have completed the project before the deadline.
The project will have been completed before the deadline.
Future Perfect
be going to
They are going to have completed the project before the deadline.
The project is going to have been completed before the deadline.
Future Perfect Continuous
will
The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.
The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.
Future Perfect Continuous
be going to
The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.
The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.
Used to
Jerry used to pay the bills.
The bills used to be paid by Jerry.
Would Always
My mother would always make the pies.
The pies would always be made by my mother.
Future in the Past
Would
I knew John would finish the work by 5:00 PM.
I knew the work would be finished by 5:00 PM.
Future in the Past
Was Going to
I thought Sally was going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
I thought a beautiful dinner was going to be made by Sally tonight.

Rewrite the sentences in passive voice.
1.      He opens the door. -  
2.      She sang a song.
3.      You will not do it.
4.      She is taking a picture of him
5.      I was repairing their bikes
6.      Farmer Joe is milking the cows.
7.      The sheep ate a lot
8.      They will show the new film
9.      A thief stole my car
10.  I draw a picture
Rewrite the sentences in passive voice.
1.      John collects money. -  
2.      Anna opened the window. -   
3.      We have done our homework. -  
4.      I will ask a question. -   
5.      He cut out the picture. -  
6.      The sheep ate a lot. -  
7.      We clean our rooms. -   
8.      William will repair the car. -  
9.      Our boss will sign the contract
10.  Sheila is drinking a cup of tea












Recount
Recounts tell the reader what happened. They retell a past event e g a visit to a farm.
Recounts begin by telling the reader who was involved, what happened, where this event took place and when it happened. This is called the orientation.
The sequence of events is then described in some sort of order
eg time.
There may be a reorientation at the end which summaries the event.
Example of a recount: shows the structure and language features of a recount text.
Writing recounts
When writing recounts you should:
• Focus on individual people i.e. use the words, I or we
• use words which indicate when (e g after lunch) and where the events took place (e g in the shed)
• Write in the past tense e.g. had, visited
• Use action words e.g. helped, crutched.
self-correct
Use the sample recount to answer these questions.

1
Write a phrase that indicates when an event took place.

2
Write a phrase that indicates where the event took place.

3
List two words that are written in the past tense.

4
List two other action words from the text.

Practice by writing a recount of a visit to the show, a field day, a farm, the vet or a your favorite place. Include people, time and the location.
 
 
Suggested answers
Recount

1
Phrases that indicate when an event took place include: last holidays; on the first day; the end of the day; then; and the next day.

2
Phrases that indicate where an event took place include: a sheep property; in the shearing sheds; the yards; the paddocks.

3
Words that are written in the past tense include helped, picked and enjoyed.

4
Other action words include sweeping, picking and shearing.


Recount: example
This sample recount is labeled to show you the structure and language features of a recount text.
title

A visit to a sheep property

orientation
Last holidays I visited a sheep property. I helped in the shearing sheds and in the yards.
sequence of events
On the first day the Merino wethers were crutched. I helped by sweeping up after the rouseabout picked up the wool pieces. Shearers start early (at 7.30 am).
After lunch, we started shearing the lambs. There were more than 400 so we didn't finish until the next day. Once again I was sweeping and picking up dags.
I was tired by the end of the day in the shed but our work wasn't finished. We all had to help to get the wethers and lambs back into the paddocks. As well, we had to get a mob of ewes and their lambs into the yards for shearing the next day. Then it was time for tea (that's what my nanna calls dinner).
reorientation
This was a very long day but I enjoyed it a lot.

Key to language features:
past tense
action terms

indicates when
indicates where

focuses on individuals


It’s time for Recount Text!

Posted by: francisxavier, in Genre / Text type








RECOUNT TEXT

GENERIC STRUCTURE
Dear Grandma and Grandpa,
Yesterday at my school we had an International Day. We had performances, food stalls, displays, raffle ticket draw, and some of us were dressed in costumes.
ORIENTATION
We started our day with performances. The performance I was in was Ladamba. However, the one I liked best was the one from the fourth grade.
EVENT 1
Right after our performances we had our lunch. There were food stalls. They came from Australia, Asia, Arab, and Greece.
EVENT 2
Everyone had a job. I did my job after I had lunch. My job was to sell International Day books.
EVENT 3
We also had displays in the hall. These displays were good, but I didn’t get to see them. The displays came from a lot of countries.
EVENT 4
There was also a Trash and Treasure stall where they sold toys. The school got these things by asking the children to bring them in.
EVENT 5
Although I didn’t win anything, International Day was still fun.
REORIENTATION

Nah, dari contoh diatas, kita tahu bahwa teks RECOUNT mempunyai GENERIC STRUCTURE sebagai berikut :
  1. Orientation : Provides the setting and introduces the participants (memberikan informasi tentang apa, siapa, di mana dan kapan).
2.      Events : Tell what happened in what sequence ( Laporan urutan kegiatan yang biasanya disampaikan secara berurutan)
3.      Reorientation : Optional – closure of events. (biasanya berisi komentar pribadi / penilaian. Tidak selau ada dalam teks RECOUNT.
Ayo, berdasarkan contoh diatas ada yang bisa menyebutkan ciri – ciri teks RECOUNT! Yap, betul, sebagian ciri – ciri teks RECOUNT adalah sebagai berikut :
  • Use of past tense (Penggunaan waktu masa lampau)
  • Focus on temporal sequence (Fokus pada urutan waktu dengan kata – kata penghubung yang menunjukkan waktu mis : when, after, then dsb)
  • Noun and noun phrases (Penggunaan kata benda maupun phrasa kata benda)
  • Focus on specific participant ( Fokus pada tokoh secara spesifik I, We, the fourth grade).















Tag Questions

 

You speak English, don't you?
A "tag" is something small that we add to something larger. For example, the little piece of cloth added to a shirt showing size or washing instructions is a tag.
A tag question is a special construction in English. It is a statement followed by a mini-question. The whole sentence is a "tag question", and the mini-question at the end is called a "question tag".
We use tag questions at the end of statements to ask for confirmation. They mean something like: "Am I right?" or "Do you agree?" They are very common in English.
The basic structure is:
+
Positive statement,
-
negative tag?
Snow is white,
isn't it?
          isn't it?
+
positive tag?
You don't like me,
do you?
Look at these examples with positive statements:
positive statement [+]
negative tag [-]
notes:
subject
auxiliary
main verb

auxiliary
not
personal
pronoun
(same as subject)

You
are
coming,

are
n't
you?

We
have
finished,

have
n't
we?

You
do
like
coffee,
do
n't
you?

You

like
coffee,
do
n't
you?
You (do) like...
They
will
help,

wo
n't
they?
won't = will not
I
can
come,

can
't
I?

We
must
go,

must
n't
we?

He
should
try
harder,
should
n't
he?

You

are
English,
are
n't
you?
no auxiliary for main verb be present & past
John

was
there,
was
n't
he?
Look at these examples with negative statements:
negative statement [-]
positive tag [+]
subject
auxiliary

main verb


auxiliary
personal
pronoun
(same as subject)
It
is
n't
raining,


is
it?
We
have
never
seen

that,
have
we?
You
do
n't
like

coffee,
do
you?
They
will
not
help,


will
they?
They
wo
n't
report

us,
will
they?
I
can
never
do

it right,
can
I?
We
must
n't
tell

her,
must
we?
He
should
n't
drive

so fast,
should
he?
You


are
n't
English,
are
you?
John


was
not
there,
was
he?
Some special cases:
I am right, aren't I?
aren't I (not amn't I)
You have to go, don't you?
you (do) have to go...
I have been answering, haven't I?
use first auxiliary
Nothing came in the post, did it?
treat statements with nothing, nobody etc like negative statements
Let's go, shall we?
let's = let us
He'd better do it, hadn't he?
he had better (no auxiliary)
Here are some mixed examples:
  • But you don't really love her, do you?
  • This will work, won't it?
  • Well, I couldn't help it, could I?
  • But you'll tell me if she calls, won't you?
  • We'd never have known, would we?
  • The weather's bad, isn't it?
  • You won't be late, will you?
  • Nobody knows, do they?
Notice that we often use tag questions to ask for information or help, starting with a negative statement. This is quite a friendly/polite way of making a request. For example, instead of saying "Where is the police station?" (not very polite), or "Do you know where the police station is?" (slightly more polite), we could say: "You wouldn't know where the police station is, would you?" Here are some more examples:
  • You don't know of any good jobs, do you?
  • You couldn't help me with my homework, could you?
  • You haven't got $10 to lend me, have you?

Intonation

We can change the meaning of a tag question with the musical pitch of our voice. With rising intonation, it sounds like a real question. But if our intonation falls, it sounds more like a statement that doesn't require a real answer:

intonation

You don't know where my wallet is,
do you?
/ rising
real question
It's a beautiful view,
isn't it?
\ falling
not a real question

Answers to tag questions

A question tag is the "mini-question" at the end. A tag question is the whole sentence.
How do we answer a tag question? Often, we just say Yes or No. Sometimes we may repeat the tag and reverse it (..., do they? Yes, they do). Be very careful about answering tag questions. In some languages, an opposite system of answering is used, and non-native English speakers sometimes answer in the wrong way. This can lead to a lot of confusion!
Answer a tag question according to the truth of the situation. Your answer reflects the real facts, not (necessarily) the question.
For example, everyone knows that snow is white. Look at these questions, and the correct answers:
tag question
correct answer


Snow is white, isn't it?
Yes (it is).
the answer is the same in both cases - because snow IS WHITE!
but notice the change of stress when the answerer does not agree with the questioner
Snow isn't white, is it?
Yes it is!
Snow is black, isn't it?
No it isn't!
the answer is the same in both cases - because snow IS NOT BLACK!
Snow isn't black, is it?
No (it isn't).
In some languages, people answer a question like "Snow isn't black, is it?" with "Yes" (meaning "Yes, I agree with you"). This is the wrong answer in English!
Here are some more examples, with correct answers:
  • The moon goes round the earth, doesn't it? Yes, it does.
  • The earth is bigger than the moon, isn't it? Yes.
  • The earth is bigger than the sun, isn't it? No, it isn't!
  • Asian people don't like rice, do they? Yes, they do!
  • Elephants live in Europe, don't they? No, they don't!
  • Men don't have babies, do they? No.
  • The English alphabet doesn't have 40 letters, does it? No, it doesn't.

Tag Questions Quiz

1
He's still sleeping, …………..?

2
You go to school, …………..?

3
You like to eat apple……………?

4
We won't be late, …………?

5
She has a new house, …………?

6
They will wash the car, …………?

7
We didn’t lock the doors, …………..?

8
I'm correct, ……………?

9
So you bought a car, ……..?  Congratulations!

10
You don’t want to invite my Dad, ………?


1 komentar: