Jumat, 25 Mei 2012

Modul kelas X semester 2



Standar Kompetensi:
Membaca: Memahami makna teks fungsional pendek dan esei sederhana berbentuk  narrative, descriptive dan news item   dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dan untuk mengakses ilmu pengetahuan

Kompetensi Dasar:
Merespon makna dalam teks monolog sederhana yang menggunakan ragam bahasa lisan  secara akurat, lancar dan berterima dalam konteks kehidupan sehari-hari dalam teks berbentuk; narrative, descriptive, dan news item

1.      Tujuan Pembelajaran
·         Siswa dapat menentkan jenis teks, ciri dan bentuk retorika dari teks news item.
·         Siswa  dapat menentukan inti berita dan sumber berita yang dibaca
·         Siswa  dapat mengidentifikasi main idea dari teks yang didengar
·         Siswa  dapat mengidentifikasi tokoh  dari cerita yang didengar
·         Siswa  dapat mengidentifikasi kejadian dalam teks yang didengar
·         Siswa  dapat mengidentifikasi inti berita yang didengar
·         Siswa  dapat mengidentifikasi sumber berita yang didengar
















News Item (Berita)

1.  Ciri Umum:
(a) The communicative purpose:
To inform the reader, listeners or viewers about events of the day which are considered newswothy or important
Memberitakan kepada pembaca, pendengar atau penonton tentang peristiwa-peristiwa atau kejadian-kejadian yang dipandang penting atau layak diberitakan.
(b) Struktur Teks:
  Newsworthy events: Recounts the events in summary form (Kejadian inti)
  Background Events: elaborate what happened, to whom, in what circumstances. (Latar belakang: elaborasi kejadian, orang yang terlibat, tempat kejadian dsb)
 Sources: Comments by participants in, witnesses to and authorities expert on the events (Sumber informasi: komentar saksi kejadian, pendapat para ahli, dsb)
(c) Ciri Kebahasaan:
  Informasi singkat tertuang dalam headline
  Menggunakan action verbs
  Menggunakan saying verbs, misalnya say, tell, dsb.
  Menggunakan kata keterangan, misalnya badly injured, the most beautiful bride in the world, dsb.

Text one:
1.      Contoh dan Struktur Teks:


Town ‘Contaminated

Kejadian Inti
Moscow – A Russian journalist has uncovered evidence of another Soviet nuclear catastrophe, which killed 10 sailors and contaminated an entire town.

Latar belakang: elaborasi
Yelena Vazrshavskya was the first journalist to speak to people who witnessed the explosion of a nuclear submarine at the naval base of shkotovo – 22 near Vladivostock.

The accident, which occurred 13 months before the Chernobyl disaster, spread radioactive fall-out over the base and nearby town, but was covered up by officials of the Soviet Union. Residents were told the explosion in the reactor of the Victor-class submarine during a refit had been a ‘thermal’ and not a nuclear explosion. And those involved in the cleanup operation to remove more than 600 tons of contaminated material were sworn to secrecy.

Sumber Informasi
A board of investigators was later to describe it as the worst accident in the history of the Soviet Navy.


Exercise 1: Answer the question
  1. What is the communicative purpose of the text?
  2. …another Soviet nuclear catastrophe
What is the synonym of the underlined word?
  1. How many people who die?
  2. Who was the first journalist speaking to witnessed?
  3. Who was the source of the text?
  4. When did the accident happen?
  5. What is the dominant structure of the text?
  6. …more than 600 tons of contaminated material…
What is the synonym of the underlined word?
  1. What happened with the nuclear submarine at the naval base of Shkotovo?
  2.  


Text two:
Pirates ringleader admits to murder

JAMBI: A pirate leader admitted, Wednesday, that his gang had been involved in six robberies and killed two police officers.
            Itham Guntur, told police investigators that the gang consisted of six people, all former member of ship crews. “Because we are all ex-crew members, we know the major shipping lanes, such as Sunda strait and East Jambi coasts very well, ”he said.
            Itham identified the murdered officers as Brigadier General Mulyadi from South Sumatera Police and Brigadier General Kennedy from the Jakarta police.
            The pirates targeted cargo ship, fishing boats and oil tankers. Antara

(Taken from: The Jakarta Post, 2006)
Exercise two:
1.      What is the communicative purpose of the text?
2.      Who was Itham Guntur?
3.      How many people consist in the gang?
4.      Why do they know the major shipping lane?
5.      A pirate leader admitted...
What is the synonym of the underlined word?
6.      What are the pirate target?
7.      Who was the source of the text?
8.      Who are murdered by Itham Guntur?
9.      Why did they know the major shipping lanes?
10.   

Text three:
MELBOURNE, Jan 22 (UPI) — Fire authorities in four Australian states are to control bushfires fanned by strong winds and searing temperature.
            The Australian reported Sunday that blazes continued in South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia and Victoria, where up to six homes have destroyed. In South Australia, much of Adelide is engulfed in thick smoke. The firefighters who are confronted by blast-furnace winds try to bring the flames under control.
            At Robertstown in the state’s mid-north, more than 2,500 acres have already burned. Another bushfire, started by lightening, charred the earth near Mouth Flat on the southern side of Kangoroo Island, while Ngarkat Conservation Park, in the State’s upper-southeast, is also a blaze.
            A 7,500-acre fire at Mount Agnew in Zeehan, in the state’s west, broke containment lines Saturday afternoon, jumping a road and coming close homes.
            The most serious fires were in Voctoria, where up to six homes were destroyed by a fire near the town of Anakie, 36 miles west of Melbourne.
            In Tasmania, falling temperatures and patchy rain brought some relief to firefighters, who continued to monitor 22 blazes across the state.

Exercise three:
  1. What is the text about?
  2. "..., while Ngarkat Conservation Park, in the state's upper-southeast, is also a blaze.” (Paragraph 3)
What do the underlined words mean?
  1. The fires increasingly happened in some parts of Australia because of…
  2. The reporter most likely got the information from…
  3. How many homes were destroyed by a fire near the town of Anakie?
  4. What is the communicative purpose of the text?
  5. What is the main idea of paragraph 2?
  6. …. homes were destroyed… (paragraph 5)
What is the synonym of the underlined word?
9.      What happened in Tasmania?
  1.  






Exercise four:
Match the words in column A with the meanings in column B

         A
                                               B
1.      Headline
2.      Article
3.      Magazine
4.      Source
5.      Column
6.      Tabloid
7.      Newspaper
8.      Factual
9.      Current
10.  Editorial
a.       vertical division of a printed page or of a newspaper, occupied regularly by one subject
b.      now passing
c.       piece of writing in a newspaper
d.      paper-covered usually weekly or monthly, and illustrated periodical, with stories articles, etc by various writers
e.       special article of discussion of news in a newspaper etc, usually written by the editor
f.       small size newspaper with many picture, strip cartoons, etc. and with its news presented in simplified form
g.      original documents
h.      concerned with fact
i.        printed publication usually issued every day, with news, advertisement, etc.
j.        newspaper heading; line at the top of a page containing title, etc


Exercise five:
Complete the sentences using the words from task 4
1.      If you want to know the current news, read a………………………
2.      You can find the …………………for news today on the first page.
3.      The reporter conveys the ………………………events from the location where the accident happened.
4.      The newspaper presents the issue of tsunami disaster on its…………………….corner.
5.       You can read the complete news on page 15 …………………………three.
6.      Teens………………………usually provide information about music, movies, and mode.
7.      When you write a scientific research, you must write the …………………….from which you get the information.
8.      Watch the most ………………………..news about celebrities and Hot News every day.
9.      I want to buy a ……………………….because I need an easy reading material.
10.  If you send an ……………………….to a printed media, you are usually rewarded with a reasonable free.










The Past Continuous Tense

The past continuous tense is an action which was occurring in the past and was interrupted by another action in this case the general rule is.

S    be V1 ing         +          S V2

v  I was walking down the street when it began to rain
v  He was waiting for the bus when I bet him yesterday
v  She was doing her home work when her father came last night
v  They were cleaning their house when I saw them last week
v  We were listening to the music when he slept yesterday evening
v  It was sleeping when I Wanted to feed it yesterday
v  You were having dinner when Intan

In negative statement we put not after the to be (was, were).

S    be    not     V1 ing            +           S       V2

v  Edi wasn’t doing his home work when his mother went out last night
v  Abdul and Robby weren’t feeding the dog when their mother told him last week
v  When I came home last night, my little sister was doing her home work

In interrogative sentence we put was/were in front of the sentence.

 I was
You were
We were
They were
He was
She was
It was
Was Jeny doing her homework at 5 o’clock?
Were you reading a novel when I called?
Were the children playing in the garden at 4 o’clock yesterday afternoon?





Exercise one:
Add the correct past form of the verbs parentheses to form
Simple past or past continuous,
1.      Jack (not feel) ………….1 I very well so he (consult) ………… 2 his doctor.
2.      He (speak)  ………….3  on the telephone when the waiter (bring) ………….4 his coffee
3.      The doctor (ask) ………….5 whether I always (take) ………….6  my medicine.
4.      I (hear) ………….7  a sound. Perhaps my elder brother (talk) ………….8  in his sleep last night
5.      When the ambulance (arrive) ………….9  the patient (sleep) ………….10 soundly yesterday
6.      The children (go) ………….11 swimming when we (be) ………….12  in holiday in Bali. Last month.
7.      She (wear) ………….13  her new skin when I (saw) ………….14 her at the party last night
8.      Columbus (try) ………….15 to reach India when he (find) ………….16 America.
9.      Peter (look) ………….17 at me as he (speak) ………….18
10.  We (have) ………….19  lunch when you (contact) ………….20 me in the office yesterday

Exercise Two:
Make questions based on the underline words
Example:         He was doing her homework when I came to her house yesterday afternoon.
                        What was she doing when you came to her house yesterday afternoon ?

1.      John was eating his lunch  when I came to pick her this morning
a.       ……………………….
b.      ……………………….

2.      We were discussing Our lesson at five o’clock  yesterday afternoon
a.       ……………………….
b.      ……………………….

3.      I got a phone call  from my house when I was working in the office
a.       ……………………….
b.      ……………………….

4.      When she  come to my house last night, we were listening to the radio
a.       ……………………….
b.      ……………………….

5.      She was cleaning the kitchen while her husband was painting the house
a.       ……………………….
b.      ……………………….

6.      Jack was drawing in his room when you phoned him yesterday morning
a.       ……………………….
b.      ……………………….

7.      He was eating lunch  when you contacted me in the office yesterday
a.       ……………………….
b.      ……………………….

8.      The students were discussing the lesson  when the teacher entered the class room
a.       ……………………….
b.      ……………………….

9.      Jane was reading in the library when she first met her husband.
a.       ……………………….
b.      ……………………….


10.  It was raining hard  when I arrived at school yesterday morning
a.       ……………………….
b.      ……………………….

Exercise Three
Put the sentence in positive, negative or interrogative
1.      + He was doing homework with his friend last night
- ……………………………………………………………………….
? ……………………………………………………………………….

2.      + ……………………………………………………………………….
- Tina wasn’t going to take her mother to her brother’s in law last week
? ………………………………………………………………………..

3.      + ………………………………………………………………………..
- ………………………………………………………………………..
? ………………………………………………………………………..

4.      + My father was reading a book when I studied last night
- ………………………………………………………………………..
? ………………………………………………………………………..

5.      + ………………………………………………………………………..
- We weren’t working in the garden when my sister served our lunch.
? ………………………………………………………………………..





















Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Present perfect continuous tense adalah (waktu selesai sedang berlangsung sekarang) menyatakan perbuatan yang dimulai pada waktu lampau dan masih berlangsung hingga sekarang.
S   +   have/has   +   been   + V1 ing
 

+    

Example:
1.            I have been staying at his place this month.
2.            We have been waiting for you since eight o’clock.
3.            She has been studying in PB Soedirman two years.

S   +   have/has   +   not  +  been   + V1 ing
 


Example:
1.            I have not been staying at his place this month.
2.            They have not been sitting here since seven o’clock.
3.            He has been thinking about changing his mayor.

Have/has   +   S   +   been   + V1 ing
 

?

Example:
1.            Has it been raining all day?
2.            He has been working at the same store for ten years?
3.            Has she been sleeping on the floor lately?

Penggunaan Present Perfect Continuous Tense

1.            Present perfect continuous tense digunakan untuk menunjukkan suatu kejadian yang terjadi pada waktu lampau, masih berlangsung sampai sekarang, dan masih akan berlangsung/diteruskan pada waktu yang akan datang.
Example:
·         She has been studying English for six month.
·         They have been living in Bogor for two years.
·         He has been working on the report for four hours.

2.            Present perfect continuous tense juga digunakan untuk menyatakan sudah berapa lama berlangsungnya suatu kejadian atau peristiwa.
Example:
·         How long have you been waiting for me?
·         Has he been waiting for me long?
·         They have been watching television since this morning.
3.            Present perfect continuous tense juga digunakan dengan how long, since, for, untuk menunjukkansuatu kegiatan atau peristiwa yang terjadi berulang kali.
Example:
·         How long have you been smoking cigarettes?
·         My father has been smoking for ten years.
·         My little sister has been collecting stamps since was still six years old.

Exercise one:  
Example          :           The workers (work on) ______ the building for two years.
The workers have been working on the building for two years.

1.            Neni (read) _______ the novel for two hours.
2.            They (live) _______ in this city for seven years.
3.            We (travel) _______ for five days and we are still only half way to Paris.
4.            My elder brother (repair) _______ the car since this morning.
5.            My sister is learning the piano. She (practice) _______ since lunch time.
6.            The children (play) _______ in the garden for two hours.
7.            His uncle (drive) _______ taxi for ten years.
8.            My brother (paint) _______ the house since this morning.
9.            The students (do) _______ their English exercise for one hour.
10.        The typist (type) _______ the report for one hour.


Exercise two:            
Put in the present perfect or the present perfect continuous tense.
Example      :
                        They (sunbathe) _______ on the beach for more than three hours.
                        They (not have)  ________ their lunch yet.
They have been sunbathing on the beach for more than three hours. They have not had their lunch yet.

1.            The mice (eat) _______1 those bananas again. Look! There are several holes in them. We (set) _______2 traps, but mice are too smart.
2.            Since she started working in the office, she (attend) _______3 classes to improve her shorthand.
3.            He (complete) _______4 his job. He deserve at rest now.
4.            The farmer (wait) _______5 for the rains to come so that he can plant his crops.
5.            The cargo ships (come) ________6 into the harbor. Many workers (unload) _______7 the goods since this morning.
6.            I’m sorry (not pay) ________8 attention to you. I (not feel)________9 well lately, and I (feel) _______10 ill the whole morning.
7.            He (make) _______11 a catapult and (shoot) _______12 at the birds all morning.
8.            We (wait) _______13 here for an hour, but Tony (not turn) ________14 up yet.
9.            The police (look) ________15 for him in vain. Everybody says they (not see) _______16 him.
10.        He (lose) _______17 his wallet and (try) _______18 to find it. But he (have) _______19 no success so far.
11.        I (walk) _______20 three kilometers, but I have not seen a single house yet.

  We use the present perfect tense to denote or action
Complete at the moment of speaking
S      has/have     V3
 



v  I have visited this place twice
v  She has left for office
v  He has just bought a new motorcycle
v  We have tried to contact her three times this morning
v  They have met him before

In this case we often use words like already, ever, finally, recently, never etc.
In negative sentence we put not after has/have and it was followed by past participle / Verb 3.
S      has/have   not      V3
 



v  You have not done your report for this week
v  She hasn’t cash the cheque
v  Yuda hasn’t paid his installment for this month
v  I haven’t met him before.

In interrogative sentence we put the auxiliary ( has/have) in front of the sentence. And it is answered by positive short answer ( yes, …) or negative short answer (no, ….)
Have/has     S     V3     ?
 



v  Have you done your home work?
Yes, I have
No, I have
v  Has she talked to Mrs. Eli?
Yes, she has
No, she has not


Exercise one:
Put the present perfect tense of the verbs in the brackets.
Example:         The level of the water (rise) ………… since last night
                        The level of water has risen since last night.

1.      ……………… 1  you ( tell) …………..2 your mother about it ?
2.      They ………………3 already (send) ………………4  in their subscriptions for the magazine.
3.      He (not eat) ………………5 breakfast yet.
4.      They (be) ………………6  in and out of court since last month. Now everything (be settled) ………………7
5.      Her grandfather ………………8 just (make) ………………9 a will ………………10 she (hear) ………………11 about it?
6.      The plumber (be) ………………12 here for a while already, but he (not start) ………………13 on his work yet. He says that he (forget) ………………14 to bring a few tools.
7.      That house ………………15 just (be sold) ………………16 Do you know who bought it?
8.      The paint work of the car (be scratched) ………………17
The front lamps (be broken) ………………18
9.      She (take) ………………19  the kettle off the stove, and she (make) ………………20 some tea


Exercise two:
Put the following sentence into present perfect tense and then change them into negative and interrogative use the verbs in the parentheses!
Example:  We (do) ………… our English exercises.
+ We have done our English exercises
-          We have not done our English exercise
? Have we done our English exercise?

1.      The two men (play) ………… table tennis since this morning
+
-
?

2.      My sister (teach) ………… English in senior high school for five years
+
-
?

3.      She (read) …………  novel for one hour
+
-
?

4.      The mechanic (repair) ………… my car since this morning
+
-
?

5.      I (try) ………… to contact him twice this morning
+
-
?

6.      He (visit) ………… this place twice this year
+
-
?

7.      My father (leave) ………… for office
+
-
?

8.      All passengers (abandon) ………… the burning ship
+
-
?






























Adverb of place and time
Adverbs of frequency, manner, place and time

a.       We usually use an adverb or adverbial phrase of manner after the verb or its object.
v  He ran swiftly to the hospital
v  She spoken in a soft voice
v  He greeted his guests  politely
v  I left the room in a hurry

b.      We also use an adverb or  adverbial phrase of place  after the verb or its object
v  Did they go there
v  She went to the rail way station  by taxi
v  My brother drove him here
v  The children played with the ball in the garden

c.       An adverb or adverbial phrase of time is usually used at either end of the sentence, but not in the middle.
v  Do you want to go now ?
v  I shall meet you at room tomorrow
v  Soon we will have to go
v  All his life he did as he wished

d.      We must never put an adverb or adverbial phrase between the verb and its object is immediately after the verb.
v  She read the letter loudly (not : read loudly the letter)
v  He beat the boy brutally ( not : brutally  the boy)
v  She shut the door angrily (not : shut angrily the door)

But we can say
v  He fought bravely against the current
v  She spoke softly  to the weeping child
v  The cat cried pitifully  for milk

e.       There are not fixed rules concerning the positions of two or more adverbs used in one sentence. You can place however you like but the usual order is.
Manner + Place + Time
 

 

v  She song sweetly at the concert last night
v  The man walked like a drunk along the road yesterday
v  They played joy fully in the field during the interval.





Exercise one:
Example:  She was (at the office, by ten o’clock)
She was at the office by ten o’clock.

1.      He wanted to do that (very much, all his life)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
2.      She is going (on Monday, to Sandy land, for two weeks)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
3.      The pupils stayed (all morning, quietly, in class)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
4.      That old woman was born (in the year 1890, at four o’clock, on new years eve)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
5.      He has worked (through out the week, very hard, in class)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
6.      She danced (at the city Hall, last week, gracefully, in the concert)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
7.      Shall I meet you (out side the cinema, on Tuesday, at noon)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
8.      He spoke to us (on our way to school, suddenly, this morning)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
9.      The new boy grinned when he met us (at the fucks hop, sheepishly)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
10.  He swerved when he rounded the corner (to the pavement, violently)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
11.  I bought a pair of shoes (last Saturday, in that shop, at the annual sale)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
12.  He arrived (at the office, late, this morning)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
13.  The beggar told his tale as he sat on the sidewalk (pitifully, everyday)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
14.  The boy chased the goats (when he saw them eating plants, angrily, out of the garden)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
15.  The runners ran (round the field, during the area, as fast as they could)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
16.  He listen to the teacher (in the class, attentively, every day)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
17.  The car ran over the dog while it was running cross the road (accidentally, a few minutes ago)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
18.  I do my homework (always, in my room, in the afternoon)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
19.  He rebuked the boy (yesterday, loudly, when he saw him bullying another boy)
…………………………………………………………………………………………
20.  The robbery took place ( in the afternoon, in the galaxy goldsmith, at two o’clock)
…………………………………………………………………………………………

Reported speech
We use reported speech when we are saying what other people say, think or believe.
  • He says he wants it.
  • We think you are right.
  • I believe he loves her.
  • Yesterday you said you didn't like it but now you do!
  • She told me he had asked her to marry him.
  • I told you she was ill.
  • We thought he was in Australia.
When we are reporting things in the present, future or present perfect we don't change the tense.
  • He thinks he loves her.
  • I'll tell her you are coming.
  • He has said he'll do it.
When we tell people what someone has said in the past, we generally make the tense 'more in the past'.
  • You look very nice. = I told him he looked very nice.
  • He's working in Siberia now. = She told me he was working in Siberia now.
  • Polly has bought a new car. = She said Polly had bought a new car.
  • Jo can't come for the weekend. = She said Jo couldn't come for the weekend.
  • Paul called and left a message. = He told me Paul had called and had left me a message.
  • I'll give you a hand. = He said he would give me a hand.
However, when we are reporting something that was said in the past but is still true, it is not obligatory to make the tense 'more in the past'. The choice is up to the speaker. For example:
"The train doesn't stop here."
  • He said the train doesn't stop here.
  • He said the train didn't stop here.
"I like Sarah."
  • She said she likes Sarah.
  • She said she liked Sarah.
When we are reporting what was said, we sometimes have to change other words in the sentence.
We have to change the pronoun if we are reporting what someone else said. Compare these two sentences. In each case the person actually said "I don't want to go."
  • I said I didn't want to go.
  • Bill said he didn't want to go.
We have to change words referring to 'here and now' if we are reporting what was said in a different place or time.
Compare these two sentences. In each case the person actually said "I'll be there at ten tomorrow."
  • (If it is later the same day) He said he would be there at ten tomorrow.
  • (If it is the next day) He said he would be there at ten today.
Now compare these two sentences.
  • (If we are in a different place) He said he would be there tomorrow at ten.
  • (If we are in the place he is coming to) He said he would be here at ten tomorrow.

When using indirect or reported speech, the form changes. Usually indirect speech is introduced by the verb said, as in I said, Bill said, or they said. Using the verb say in this tense, indicates that something was said in the past. In these cases, the main verb in the reported sentence is put in the past. If the main verb is already in a past tense, then the tense changes to another past tense; it can almost be seen as moving even further into the past.
Verb tense changes also characterize other situations using indirect speech. Note the changes shown in the chart and see the table below for examples. With indirect speech, the use of that is optional.

Direct Speech
Þ
Indirect Speech
simple present
He said, “I go to school every day.”
Þ
simple past
He said (that) he went to school every day.
simple past
He said, “I went to school every day.”
Þ
past perfect
He said (that) he had gone to school every day.
present perfect
He said, “I have gone to school every day.”
Þ
past perfect
He said (that) he had gone to school every day.
present progressive
He said, “I am going to school every day.”
Þ
past progressive
He said (that) he was going to school every day.
past progressive
He said, “I was going to school every day.”
Þ
perfect progressive
He said (that) he had been going to school every day,
future (will)
He said, “I will go to school every day.”
Þ
would + verb name
He said (that) he would go to school every day.
future (going to)
He said, “I am going to school every day.”
Þ
present progressive
He said (that) he is going to school every day.

past progressive
He said (that) he was going to school every day
Direct Speech
Þ
Indirect Speech
auxiliary + verb name
He said, “Do you go to school every day?”
He said, “Where do you go to school?”
Þ
simple past
He asked me if I went to school every day.*
He asked me where I went to school.
imperative
He said, “Go to school every day.”
Þ
infinitive
He said to go to school every day.

*Note than when a Yes/No question is being asked in direct speech, then a construction with if or whether is used. If a WH question is being asked, then use the WH to introduce the clause. Also note that with indirect speech, these are examples of embedded questions.
The situation changes if instead of the common said another part of the very to say is used. In that case the verb tenses usually remain the same. Some examples of this situation are given below.
 Direct Speech
Þ
Indirect Speech

simple present + simple present
He says, “I go to school every day.”
Þ
simple present + simple present
He says (that) he goes to school every day.

present perfect + simple present
He has said, “I go to school every day.”
Þ
present perfect + simple present
He has said (that) he goes to school every day.

past progressive + simple past
He was saying, “I went to school every day.”
Þ
past progressive + simple past
He was saying (that) he went to school every day.


past progressive + past perfect
He was saying (that) he had gone to school every day.

future + simple present
He will say, “I go to school every day.”
Þ
future + simple present
He will say (that) he goes to school every day.


Another situation is the one in which modal constructions are used. If the verb said is used, then the form of the modal, or another modal that has a past meaning is used.

Direct Speech
Þ
Indirect Speech
can
He said, “I can go to school every day.”
Þ
could
He said (that) he could go to school every day.
may
He said, “I may go to school every day.”
Þ
might
He said (that) he might go to school every day.
might
He said, “I might go to school every day.”


must
He said, “I must go to school every day.”
Þ
had to
He said (that) he had to go to school every day.
have to
He said, “I have to go to school every day.”


should
He said, “I should go to school every day.”
Þ
should
He said (that) he should go to school every day.
ought to
He said, “I ought to go to school every day.”
Þ
ought to
He said (that) he ought to go to school every day.



While not all of the possibilities have been listed here, there are enough to provide examples of the main rules governing the use of indirect or reported speech. For other situations, try to extrapolate from the examples here, or better still, refer to a good grammar text or reference book.
Some other verbs that can be used to introduce direct speech are: ask, report, tell, announce, suggest, and inquire. They are not used interchangeably; check a grammar or usage book for further information.
Exercise one:
Change the sentences into indirect speech with the appropriate adverbs of time
1.      Ronald said, “I want to go to Bali next year.”
2.      Putri said, “I got a new Job today.”
3.      Gita said, “I am surfing on the Internet now.”
4.      Mr. Chandra said, “My family has lived here since last year.”
5.      Mrs. Harry said, “I will watch TV tonight.”
Exercise two:
 Change the direct speech into indirect speech

1.      Rendy says, “I’m very hungry.”
2.      Mother said, “Put the vegetables into the fridge!”
3.      The teacher said, “Don’t be late to the class.”
4.      Mr. Indra said, “I’m going to go to Jakarta.”
5.      Ms. Febrianti said, “Don’t ride the motorcycle carelessly.”
Exercise three:
Change the indirect speech into direct speech.

1.      The teacher told me to shut the door.
2.      Brian said that his father would go to Jakarta the following week.
3.      Ari said to told me not to go out then.
4.      Mr. Pras asked the pupils to close their textbooks.
5.      Deny says to Mira that he will borrow books from library.





Review Semester 2
Choose a suitable form of the verb and complete the sentence.
1.      Mother: Clean your room, Siska!
Siska   :  Yes, Mom.
Vinda  :  What did your mother tell you, Siska?
Siska   :  She told me……………………..
A.    clean my room
B.     To clean my room
C.     To clean your room
D.    Cleaned my room
E.     Cleans your room

2.      Rahmat: Bimo left for Bandung this morning
Irdham: What did you say?
Rahmat: ……………….
A.    I said that Bimo leaves for Bandung
B.     I said that Bimo will leave for Bandung
C.     I said that Bimo is leaving for Bandung
D.    I said that Bimo would leave for Bandung
E.     I said that Bimo had left for Bandung

3.      Galih: Were you sleeping when I called you last night?
Fahrel: No, I went to the cinema.
From the dialog we know that Galih wanted to know if Fahrel………………….when he called him
A.    sleeps
B.     Slept
C.     Is sleeping
D.    Was sleeping
E.     Had been sleeping

4.      Doctor: Open your mouth.
Mother: What did the doctor tell you?
Son      : The doctor told me……………..
A.    That I  opened his mouth
B.     If I opened my mouth
C.     Whether I open my mouth
D.    To open my mouth
E.     To open your mouth

5.      The librarian asked me ………….
A.    Why had returned the book
B.     Whether I had returned the book
C.     When did I returned the book
D.    That I returned the book
E.     Who had returned the book

6.      Arman ………………  with his grandparents when he became champion
A.    was living
B.     is living
C.     have lived
D.    lives
E.     lived

7.      They ……………… a wedding party when it began to rain
A.    is attending
B.     have attended
C.     were attending
D.    had attended
E.     has attendant
8.      The students ……………… part in a football match when Abidin was injured
A.    is taking
B.     were taking part
C.     are taking
D.    will be taking part
E.     was taking part
9.      Soraya’s mother ……………… to bed when the phone rang
A.    is going
B.     was going
C.     goes
D.    will be going
E.     have gone

10.  We ……………… our neighbors when we saw a plane landing
A.    was visiting
B.     is visiting
C.     were visiting
D.    will be going
E.     have visited

11.  Ardi and his brother ……………… on their father’s form when lighting struck
A.    were working
B.     is working
C.     will work
D.    are working
E.     will be working


9.      My sister ……………… in basketball game when she injured her leg
A.    are playing
B.     plays
C.     is playing
D.    was playing
E.     were playing

10.  The little boy ………………  very fast when he was hit by a truck
A.    is riding
B.     rides
C.     are riding
D.    was riding
E.     were riding

11.  Tyo ……………… the ball when the other player hit him
A.    was dribbling
B.     is dribbling
C.     were dribbling
D.    dribbled
E.     has dribbled

12.  The crowd ………………  when the actors come back on stage
A.     was clapped
B.     is clapping
C.     was clapped
D.    clapped
E.     are clapped

13.  Eris ………………  in a seaside resort
A.     growing up
B.     grew
C.     has grown up
D.    grow
E.     grows

14.  My parents ……………… in the same house for twenty two years
A.     are living
B.     lived
C.     will live
D.    have lived
E.     has lived

15.  We ……………… our meal at this restaurant many times
A.     had
B.     have had
C.     are having
D.    has
E.     have

16.  Mono   : Roby ………………  the household chores all her life
Roby          : She is still doing it.
A.     does
B.     did
C.     hos done
D.    is doing
E.     do

17.  My grand parents ……………… Bandung since last year
A.     have settled
B.     settled
C.     will settled
D.    settles
E.     has settled

18.  The boys ………………  in the main stadium before
A.     played
B.     have played
C.     has played
D.    are played
E.     will be playing

19.  This tree  ………………  since last December
A.     has grown
B.     grew
C.     will grow
D.    grows
E.     grow

20.  I ……………… the day’s marketing already
A.     have done
B.     will do
C.     does
D.    did
E.     was doing

21.  The ship ……………… the port of Hongkong yesterday
A.     leave
B.     left
C.     have left
D.    has left
E.     leave

22.  The wind ………………  down the trees in the park
A.     blows
B.     will blow
C.     has blown
D.    is blowing
E.     blow

23.  We ………………  about you. We ……………… the news we just heard on the radio
A.    do not talk – discussed
B.     didn’t talk – were discussing
C.     weren’t talk – were discussing
D.    wasn’t talked – discussed
E.     didn’t talk – was discussing

24.  While I ………………  with my uncle in green wood park. I often ……………… him on his fishing trips
A.     Stayed – accompany
B.     Was staying – was accompany
C.     Was staying – accompanied
D.    Stayed – was accompanying
E.     Stayed – accompanied

25.  When I ……………… at the cinema, Richard ……………… for me
A.    arrived – waited
B.     arrived – was waiting
C.     arrived – were waiting
D.    was arriving – were waiting
E.     was arriving – was waiting

26.  I was studying (at School, very hard, all day yesterday)
A.    I was studying all day yesterday at school very hard
B.     I was studying all day yesterday very hard at school
C.     I was studying all very hard at school all day yesterday
D.    I was studying at school very hard all day yesterday
E.     I was studying all very hard all day yesterday at school

27.  She meet you (in the book store, today, at 5 O’clock)
A.     She meet you at 5 O’clock in the book store today
B.     She meet you in the book store today at 5 O’clock
C.     She meet you today in the book store at 5 O’clock
D.     She meet you in the book store today at 5 O’clock
E.     She meet you today at 5 O’clock in the book store









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