Senin, 28 Mei 2012

IDENTIFYING PEOPLE

Language Focus

IDENTIFYING PEOPLE

To identify people and object we can use Relative clause, present or active participle and preposition “for”.

1.             Relative clause
®        What is the name of that girl whose father is a well known senator?

2.             Present or active participle
®            Please tell my sister standing over there.
®            That cat fighting with your dog is mine.
®            My friend heard my teacher talking about his bad result in the second test.

3.             Preposition “for”
®        The magazines on the shelf are for the patients waiting for the doctor.
®        The information is for the students registered.


1.             Adjective Clauses
Terms :
·               Clause is a group of words containing a subject and a verb.
·               Independent clause is a complete sentence containing the main subject and verb of a sentence.
·               Dependent clause is not a complete sentence, it must be connected to an independent clause.

Þ        Adjective clause is a dependent clause that modifies noun. It describes, identifies or given a further information about a noun.

1.1          Using Subject Pronouns :
Who, Which, That
The process to make adjective clause:
(1)     I saw the man. He opened the door.
We can say another way :
(a)           I saw the man who opened the door.
(b)           I saw the man that opened the door.

®            I saw the man = an independent clause.
Who opened the door = an dependent clause.
®            In (a) and (b) have the same meaning.
®            Who or that is the subject of the adjective clause.

(2)     The novel is mine. It is on the table.
We can say in another way :
(a)           The novel which is on the table is mine.
(b)           The novel that is on the table is mine

Notes      :       who        =      used for people
                        which     =      used for things
                        that         =      used for both people and things

Exercise 1 : Combine the two sentences

1.             The boy looks happy. He won the race.
2.             I am using a sentence. It contains an adjective clause.
3.             Alegebra problems contain letters. They stand for unknown numbers.
4.             The new comer lives next door. She is form Bugis.
5.             The bus driver was very friendly. He took him to the airport.
6.             I liked the composition. It was written so grammatically.
7.             The bricklayer has four daughters. They have graduated from university.


1.2          Using Object Pronouns :
            Whom, Which, That

(1)     The lady is Mrs. Smith. I know her well.
We can say in another way :
(a)           The lady whom I know well is Mrs. Smith
(b)           The lady that I know well is Mrs. Smith
(c)           The lady Ø I know well is Mrs. Smith

(2)     The movie wasn’t very good. We saw it last night.
We can cay in another way :
(a)           The movie which we saw last night wasn’t very good.
(b)           The movie that we saw last night wasn’t very good.
(c)           The movie Ø we saw last night wasn’t very good.

Notes      :
-          whom     =      used for people
which     =      used for things
that         =      used for both people and things
               
-          In (c) and (f) : an object pronoun is often omitted from an adjective cluse. (A subject pronoun, however may not be omitted).

Exercise 2 : Combine the two sentences

1.             The people were very nice. We visited them yesterday.
2.              The scientist is well known for his research. We met him.
3.             The young teachers are all from Japan. We must them at the meeting last night.
4.             I returned the book. I had borrowed it form classmate.
5.             The catcher caught the wild cat. All people tried to kill it.
6.             The man gave me good advice. I spoke to him.


1.3          Using Whose  
(1)     I know the boy. His car was burnt on his way-school.
We can say in another way :
·               I know the boy whose car was burnt on his way-school.

(2)     The student sings very well. Her friend is a singer.
We can say in another way :
·               The student whose friend is a singer sings very well

Exercise 3 :

1.             The old lady called the police. Her gold watch was stolen.
2.             I met the postman. His son is the president of the corporation.
3.             I apologized to the woman. I spilled her coffee.
4.             I have to call the woman. I accidentally picked up her umbrella after the meeting.
5.             The man poured a glass of water in his face. His beard caught on fire when he lit a cigarette.
6.             I came from a country. Its history goes back thousands of years.
7.             I live in a dormitory. Its residents come from many countries.


1.4          Using Where
-          The building is very old. He lives there (in that building)
We can say on another way :
(a)           The building where he lives is very old.
(b)           The building in which he lives is very old.
(c)           The building which he lives in is very old.
(d)           The building that he lives in is very old.
(e)           The building Ø he lives in is very old.

Notes :       If where is used, a preposition is not included in the adjective clause. If where is not used, the proposition must be included.

Exercise 4 : Combine the sentences

1.             Puncak Pass is very beautiful. We spend our vacation there (in that place).
2.             That is the bookstore. I met you there (at that bookstore).
3.             The town is small. I grew up there (in the town).
4.             That is the drawer. I keep my jewelry there (in that drawer).


2.             Present or active participle
Study the following sentences :
(a)           I have a friend who lives in Spain.
(b)           I have a friend living in Spain.

Both of the sentences have the same meaning.
(a)           Please tell my sister who is standing over there.
(b)           Please tell my sister standing over there.

Exercise 5 : Combine the two sentences using ing clause,

Example   :     I was woken up by a bell. The bell was ringing.
I was woken up by a bell ringing.

1.             The man was disturbed by the baby. She was crying.
2.             When I was walking home, there was a man. He was following me.
3.             I say hello to the man. He is talking to the Dean.
4.             The bird is a Murai. It is singing.
5.             Do you know the baby? He is sitting under the tree.







Tidak ada komentar:

Poskan Komentar